Ventilation systems

The concept of quality microclimate in stables

Microclimate plays a crucial role in increasing the effectiveness of modern farms, whether for pigs, poultry, cattle or other livestock. Modern genotypes are extremely susceptible to environmental influences, for instance such as pig is one of the most sensitive animals at all. Unless the microclimate within the required limits can not be assumed conversion to high-quality feed, high daily weight gains, and low mortality.

Dnešní pojetí hodnocení mikroklimatu není pouze téma o splnění teplotních kritérií, ale i o omezení vlivu relativní vlhkosti a negativních plynů, zejména NH3 a CO2. BAUER – MICROCLIMA SYSTEMS nehodnotí ani počet výměn vzduchu za časovou jednotku, ale důležitý je souhrn vlivu všech parametrů.

Today's approaches of microclimate evaluation is not only subject to compliance with the criteria of temperature, but also the reducing the influence of relative humidity and negative gases, especially CO2, and NH3. BAUER - MICROCLIMA SYSTEMS does not evaluate number of air changes per unit of time only, but the important is the aggregate impact of all parameters.

In our proposals plays a pivotal role in animal welfare, expressing her "temperature-humidity index“, respectively feeling level of temperature TTHI as temperature corrected using the relative humidity = " TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY (hygrothermal) COMFORT ZONE.


Bauer's ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL - control environment - a complex technological system for high-quality stable microclimate with high-end components. We are not talking about the draft ventilation system stable, but a proposal for a comprehensive system of stable microclimate (ventilation, temperature alt.cooling of stable air).

From the above result the main challenges in creating the microclimate( McGlone et al , 2002), namely:

  • pernament substitution of fresh air,
  • reducing the relative humidity
  • modulate the temperature and physical environmental parameters (through heating, cooling).

The main elements (Agência), forming a stable microclimate, include:

  • temperature in the barn, RH of air,
  • air velocity (or the number of air changes per time unit),
  • the amount of harmful gases in the zone of the animal,
  • light,
  • sound,
  • vibration,
  • microbial load.

The primary endpoints are air temperature and RH, respectively windchill – affect (feeling) temperature, which the air temperature is influenced by other variables. The result of each solution should be kept to a minimum deviation of each parameter during the day, month and year, a balancing of heating, ventilation and cooling systems and their management so that the differences over time were minimal. Of course there are other factors, influencers, as the temperature of peripheral wall structure, temperature, humidity, flooring, etc. Can not argue that the main influence Agencie environment can interact with ventilation, heating and cooling system. It can be argued that the influence the main agencies of the environment is possible with the help of ventilation, heating and cooling systems.


Proper ventilation design of ventilation system is a matter of longtime experience and quality know - how. We feel that the quality of the microclimate in stables is essential to improving the health status of animals, hence the stable animal hygiene, and the results of breeding of medicaments consumption, and increases mortality. Except the controlling of the temperature and relative humidity we deal with the complex of optimal components of microclimate. That is why in our project we account:


  • MINIMUM LEVEL OF VENTILATION as ventilation in m3/animal/hour and its regulation especially in cold season. Its value corresponds to the reduction of RH to guarantee the desired maximum level,
  • THE MAXIMUM LEVEL OF VENTILATION in m3/animal/hour in the periods of high temperatures is calculated as the maximum volume of air to the given area, for the given category of animals and the given housing conditions preventing the formation of stress emergency from high temperatures.Functionally our systems are designed for the warmest year period. In our proposals we use the so-called "tunnel effect", since the increased velocity of air cooled animals. It must of course meet many conditions to avoid the emergence of "draft" - the hot period of the year in most countries is necessary for the adequate operation of the system use combined with a cooling system,
  • THE STANDARD VENTILATION is functional in the period of average temperatures and is designed for the average system performance.


Proposal for a stable microclimate system based only ventilation is not enough. The primary design criteria are purely instrumental. The system must also permit:

  • CHECK ON THE HOMOGENITY OF AIR stable at all points (reasonable: the smallest differences between the various parameters in different places stable),
  • Check the SPEED OF THE AIRFLOW (air velocity)in the zone of animals so as not to exceed acceptable limits,
  • Control the NUMBER OF AIR EXCHANGES IN THE STABLE PER HOUR as the criteria of speed airflow (air velocity),
  • Control of VACUUM LEVEL in the stable, as the ideal criteria for guaranteeing the steady and good microclimate.

TERTIARY LEVEL OF EVALUATION (or a quality monitoring system)

That is how the system is operational, how allows you to control each variable will, allow only long-term monitoring of variables forming stable microclimate. Monitoring, especially in technical and financial point of view is possible and necessary, in particular for the following main variables:

  • TEMPERATURE ( internal temperature of air, ideal is parallel monitoring outdoor temperature of air),
  • RELATIVE HUMIDITY (stable air as an additional criterion can be observed outside air RH),
  • GAS CONTENT in the living area of animals (mainly NH3 a CO2),

And then the evaluation of the above data, the parameters can be calculated "to feel the temperature levels in animals", ie the actual temperature of the emerging interactions of these variables and factors (see below).

BAUER design of the systems of ventilation, heating and cooling comes out from the philosophy keep the animals in temperature- humidity comfort zone, where the animal all the energy use to create maximum gains and and not cover heat loss (from cold stress) or if there are production losses due to from heat stress.

Bauer has developed a wide range of tools to ease the emotional setting of the optimum temperature for different categories of animals on the basis of different levels of temperature and relative humidity.

If you know what are the main criteria for welfare (which is a comfort zone), if you have adequate knowledge about physical characteristics and behavior of air and have good technical elements for the proper functioning of the ventilation, heating and cooling system, then you can design the appropriate system.



BAUER offers solutions to all types of stables and housing systems. It has such a know-how and components to ensure optimal breeding results. We are creating an ideal microclimate for pigs, poultry, cattle and other animal categories. We work with new concepts such as "THI temperature" (temperature, the animal feels, where the effect of temperature adapt through the level of relative humidity and alternatively as an "effective temperature" setting off air) and „temperature-humidity comfort zone“ („temperature-humidity "index, which reflects the effect of temperature and relative humidity).

"BAUER" Ventilation systems are assembled from proven components:

  • ventilation,
  • heating,
  • microclimate cooling,
  • management and quality monitoring microclimate

If the parameters are not in the microclimate at "comfort zone" can not be assumed efficient use of energy of feed. It is necessary to breed animals in the zone of thermal neutrality for the best use of ability. If the body temperature is outside these limits, it always means the activation of temperature regulators and losses.


Creating and regulation of stable microclimate is always a difficult problem. And to fulfil the required is possible by the interplay of all components. The basic parameters of microclimate are determined:

  • Temperature inside the barn (the internal temperature Ti),
  • Relative humidity (RH),
  • The content of harmful gases (air in stable up to 150 types of gases, we will concentrate on those critical - CO2 and NH3),
  • Airflow (air velocity V).

Based on these parameters, we propose an optimal system that meets the primary and secondary criteria.


"BAUER" systems contribute to the perfect ventilation without drafts and thus better health of animals and acquisitions. We supply both vacuum systems, pressure, and equal-pressure.

In principle, in practice, ventilation systems, use the following:


"Chimney" ventilation - for classical objects, especially for reconstruction. It is the ideal and cheapest system with inlet valves in the form of polyurethane or polypropylene flap window (to light stable) in the wall and exhaust chimneys with a fan in the roof.

"Transverse" - cross ventilation – for objects close to 12-15m (for fattening , extraordinary for sows or piglets, alt. separate systems of minimum ventilation). Cheap and functional system, but the inability to take full advantage of the cooling effect and regulate exactly the homogeneity of the air in a barn

Tunnel ventilation – in combination with other systems very effective system, especially in periods of high temperatures and areas with higher temperature. Suction of air happens from the side stalls and the exhaustion happens at the front of house through the fans. ventilations. In summer it is possible to add a cooling system in the other head of the stable.

"Combined" ventilation - based on a combination of the above systems - mostly "chimney" system with a tunnel system (in poultry barns), or tunnel with uder grid (pigs) system. We separate the minimum ventilation during cold seasons of the period of higher temperatures, the onset of intensive ventilation system.

Diffuse ventilation – air intake flow through the porous ceiling. Perfect for a stable system of pigs at low temperatures, ideal for 22-25 oC, at higher temperatures to be completed by cooling system. We ideally define zones, where 100 % air supply is from the zones where is necessary to ventilate limited.

"Corridor ventilation" (Duo System) – the perfect system for the pig barns, where the air supply is through the central corridor and from there to the various sections of wall gravity drain valves, and partly under the grates and partly to the chimney or wall (fan controlled 0-100%). The advantage is the possibility of passing already tempered, or cooled air and regulation of all air parameters.

"Under- grid” ventilation – exhaust air from beneath the grates. It's the perfect system for the pig barn, which combines the previous systems. Absolutely the best results are then combined under grid ("bottom") airing in the 30-40% performance with conventional vacuum system (for example tunnel).

"Natural" ventilation - is based on the use of servo-controlled curtains. The advantage is the possibility of "nature" ventilation during the power outage. Ideal for cattle sheds, stables for pigs and poultry for specific systems.

"Equal-pressure" ventilation

In the barn without the possibility of air inlet walls instalation, respectively.for wide stables has to be used Equal-pressure system (or systém with minimum negative pressure) with air inlet and outlet chimneys.The inlet can be positioned air mixing head.

Forced (over pressure) ventilation

This system is used in the stables where other systems cannot be installed. Air is supplied from given zone by ventilators and is collected by gravity. This is suitable for systems with central temperature or air cooling.